Pterostilbene, alias 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene, (E)-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystyrene, (E)-4-[2- (3,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-vinyl]-phenol and 4-[(1E)-2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-vinyl]-phenol, is a kind It is derived from the active ingredients of plants such as red sandalwood, blueberry, grape and flower palm. Pterostilbene has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and analgesic effects. A large number of studies have shown that red sandalwood has a good effect in the treatment and protection of skin diseases, especially in the field of antioxidants.

    Red sandalwood is a chemical component contained in red sandalwood, but scientists have also found the existence of red sandalwood in other plants, but because it was first found in red sandalwood, it was named as red sandalwood. Pterostilbene is a white or off-white powder crystal, which has rich medicinal value and belongs to the antifungal active ingredient in blood products. It has certain effects on the treatment of cancer, hypertension and hyperlipemia. Recently, researchers have mastered the industrial synthesis method of red sandalwood.

    Pterostilbene is an antifungal active ingredient in blood products. It is a polyhydroxy stilbene compound and is a homologue of resveratrol. Its pharmacological action is similar to that of resveratrol. Antifungal activity (the antifungal activity is five times that of resveratrol).

    Pterostilbene is a white or off-white crystalline powder that is sensitive to air and has a melting point of 89-92 °C. Sealed at 2-8 ° C in the dark.

Artificial synthesis method

    Using 3,5-dimethoxybenzyl bromide and p-nitrobenzaldehyde as raw materials, the target was obtained by Witting-Hornor reaction, reduction, diazotization and hydrolysis, and the natural product was synthesized in a total yield of 53.9%. The functional antioxidant was ebony, and the structure of the target was characterized by IR, 1H NMR and EI-MS. The synthesis process is simple, the operation is convenient, the production cost is low, and the industrial application prospect is good.

Precautions

    Red sandalwood is an irritating item that harms the environment.

    Serious injury to the eyes. In case of accidental contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Wear goggles or a mask.

    Toxic to aquatic organisms, may have long-term adverse effects on the water environment. Avoid release to the environment. Refer to the special instructions / safety data sheet.

Antioxidant mechanism

    Pterostilbene is considered to be a powerful natural antioxidant, mainly expressed in: 1 reducing oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and superoxide anion O2; 2 increased expression of catalase in different cell lines, such as total Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase SOD, and the like. The antioxidant effects of Pterostilbene may act through multiple interrelated mechanisms. Pterostilbene can up-regulate the expression of Mn-SOD in mitochondrial matrix through the activation and expression of Bcl-2 related X protein, inhibit mitochondrial respiration and reduce peroxide production. Or acting on low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, reducing the production of reactive oxygen species and down-regulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Pterostilbene can also activate nuclear factor-related factor 2 (NF-E2-related factor 2, Nrf2) to exert its antioxidant effects, such as P. sinensis, which can activate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione reductase by activating Nrf2. High expression, which plays an antioxidant and anti-cancer effect, and its effect is stronger than resveratrol. When Pterostilbene acts on β cells of pancreatic cancer, it can activate Nrf2 and increase target genes such as heme oxygenase-1, carnitine acetyltransferase, SOD and glutathione oxidase downstream of Nrf2. Expression of the degenerating gene bcl-2, with dose and time tolerance. As an antioxidant, red sandalwood can resist cell proliferation, lower blood fat, inhibit COX-1 and COX-2, fight cancer and antifungal.

1, colon cancer

    Colon cancer is one of the common malignant tumors, with the highest incidence in the 40-50 age group. According to the World Epidemiological Survey, colon cancer has the highest incidence in North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand and other places, and ranks second in visceral tumors. The incidence and mortality rate in China has increased year by year.

    After years of experimenting with animals, American scientists have discovered that extracting this compound from blueberries and grapes inhibits an enzyme called "P450 cytochrome," which activates chemical carcinogens and lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It has the function of preventing cancer and heart disease. Pterostilbene is a fragrant fragrance called "styrene" hydrocarbon, a derivative of resveratrol.

    In the early 1990s, American scientists discovered that resveratrol has the function of preventing breast cancer and heart disease, and is abundantly found in red grape skin. Red sandalwood helps prevent damage to the body in the early stages of cancer. As an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, it is found in both blueberries and blackberries. The University of Ohio found that animals eating berry berries had a 80% reduction in colon cancer and a 60% reduction in gastrointestinal cancers. German investigators found that drinking 2-3 cups of juice a day can also treat colon cancer. According to statistics, after 8 weeks of continuous consumption of blueberry or grape containing red sandalwood, the precancerous lesions in the colon were reduced by 57%. It reduces the spread of intestinal cancer cells and inhibits certain identified genes that cause inflammation, both of which are considered risk factors for colon cancer.

2, with skin tumors

    Skin tumors are among the most common human tumors in the current range. Epidemiological data show that UV radiation is the main carcinogen in skin tumors. UV irradiation stimulates abnormal proliferation of skin cells, leading to canceration of cells through multiple signal transduction pathways. Many plant compounds have inhibitory effects on chemically induced skin tumors in mice, such as resveratrol, grape seed extract and the like. By inhibiting epidermal hyperplasia and cell proliferation, the survival of intermediate cell biomarkers is modulated; the inflammation marker COX-2, oncogene mutations and apoptosis are reduced to inhibit skin tumors. Resveratrol can reduce the dermal papilloma of mice induced by dimethylbenzazole/croton oil by 60%, reduce the incidence of papilloma by prolonging the latency of tumorigenesis, and increase the number of tumors per mouse. Reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Pterostilbene inhibits the growth of cancer cells by inducing cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In addition, red sandalwood and resveratrol can enhance the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione reductase by significantly activating Nrf2. Pterostilbene can also induce tumor cell death through lysosomal membrane permeability. Melanoma is a malignant skin tumor due to its strong erosion, early metastasis, and high mortality. Pterostilbene and quercetin inhibit the growth and metastasis of metastatic melanoma by inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecule-1 in rat sinusoidal endothelial cells, thereby reducing the adhesion of B16M-F10 cells to endothelial cells and inhibiting metastatic Bcl- 2 expression reduces cytotoxicity of vascular endothelial cells. At the same time, Pterostilbene significantly inhibited skin tumors induced by activation of NF-κB and Activin-1.

3, anti-inflammatory

    Pterostilbene may activate reduced coenzyme II oxidase by protein kinase C, thereby stimulating neutrophils to not produce superoxide superoxide anion and myeloperoxidase, and its effect is significantly decreased at 100 μmol/L, so the rosewood The effect may be dose dependent. Pterostilbene has the ability to inhibit the activation of nuclear factor NF-κB, thereby inhibiting the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide synthase genes, resulting in reduced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and nitric oxide, thereby reducing Stimulating response to inflammation.